What is a Microprocessor?

Definition: A microprocessor is a processing unit that is used to control all the functions on a system, the miniature system build-in using an integrated circuit.

A combination of arithmetic and logic functions is used to control the whole circuit and system.

Multiple blocks at the microprocessor are the combination of different types of blocks to complete a task, the blocks such as arithmetic and logic unit, memory unit, control unit, and register unit.

10 Types of microprocessor

  1. RISC Processor
  2. CISC Processor
  3. Superscalar processor
  4. AISC processor
  5. DSP
  6. SIMD
  7. Symbolic Processors
  8. Bit-Slice Processors
  9. Transputers
  10. Graphics Processors

 1. RISC Processor

The RISC processor are been consider as the alternate to the ‘CISC’ or complex instruction set computing set, and the RISC processor has simple instruction sets and also having simple addressing modes.

They were designed to reduce the execution time by simplifying the instruction set of the computer, the execution of the RISC processor is faster and only takes one clock cycle per instruction.

Special features of the RISC processor are that it allows developers to increase the register set and increase internal parallelism by increasing no of parallel threads executed by the CPU, this will increase the speed of the CPU.

RISC full form

Reduced instruction set computer is the form full for ‘RISC’

RISC microprocessor architecture

RISC microprocessor architecture
RISC microprocessor architecture

‘Reduced instruction set computer’ name spread a common misunderstanding that is ‘RISC’ eliminate instruction, but the fact then reduces the instruction set.

The RISC CPU implements the processor design principle of simplified instruction that can do less but can execute more rapidly.

RISC had a highly optimized set of instruction rather than a highly specialized set of instruction typically found in other processor architecture and Most of the RISC architecture had a fixed length of instruction (commonly 32bit).

The main drawback of the RISC processor is it does not allow direct memory to memory transfer, then only required load and store instruction, At the RISC processor, it is very difficult to process complex instruction and complex addressing mode.

Advantages of RISC

 Instructions are simple hence easy to understand and decode.

  The instructions are complete in one clock cycle therefore, CPU can handle multiple instructions at a time.

Designing the RISC processors is easier in comparison to the CISC processors.

RISC microprocessor examples

The RISC processor used at, ARC, ALPHA, AM29000, ARM, Atmel AVR, i960, etc….

The RISC processors had applications on modern electronic gadgets.

2. CISC microprocessor

The invention of the CISC processor is before the RISC processor, at that time computer memory uses to be small and very expensive.

CISC processors are very helpful to simplify the code and to make shorter the instruction set to reduce the memory requirement, this is achieved by building processor hardware that is capable of understanding and execute a series of operations.

The instruction set with memory by using complex addressing mode, CISC processor reduces the program size, this result reduces the memory cycle and minimum executes the program, this will increase overall execution speed at CISC.

CISC full form

Complex instruction set computer is the full form for ‘CISC’

CISC processor architecture

CISC processor architecture
CISC processor architecture

The CISC processor architecture includes a complete set of special-purpose circuits, which carrier’s instruction very high speed, the CISC microprocessor instruction are simple or very complex.

The complex instruction set is specified at the level of assembly language level and execution of this instruction takes more time.

At the CISC processor, the compiler needs a small effort to change the program or statement from the higher level to assembly.

Advantages of CISC

Microprogramming in CISC is as easy as assembly language implementation.

The number of instructions for performing operations is less in number. Hence, the memory usage is low. Moreover, time consumption is also less

CISC processor examples

The complex instruction set computer or CISC microprocessor are been used at VAX, AMD, and Intel x86 CPUs.

3.Superscalar processor

A superscalar processor is capable to execute multiple tasks at one time without any delay, because of its wide architecture structure, the superscalar microprocessor CPU manages multiple instructions to execute several instructions set during a clock cycle.

This is achieved by feeding different pipelines through several execution units within the processor.

Superscalar processor in computer architecture

Superscalar processor in computer architecture
Superscalar processor in computer architecture

The designing of the superscalar processor will enable its CPU to manage and execute several programs at a time.

The term parallelism on the superscalar processor helps them to make it as multiple instructions executing processors at a time.

Instruction sets are is used from a sequential instruction stream, the CPU must alternatively check for check dependencies.

Superscalar processor examples

The superscalar processor are been used at Intel i960A, AMD29006 series, and MC88100.

Special function microprocessor types

The special function microprocessor types had a very specific working operation as microprocessors such as AISC processor, DSP processor, SIMD processor, Symbolic Processors, Bit-Slice Processors, Transputers and Graphic Processors.

4. ASIC processor 

The ASIC is designed for a specific purpose, the ASIC is used for transmission protocols or a handheld computer.

ASIC full form

The application-specific integrated circuit is the form full for ASIC

ASIC processor architecture

ASIC processor architecture
ASIC processor architecture

ASIC is an integrated circuit that is implemented for a specific purpose, the ASIC had applications in all industries that are from communication to automotive.

ASIC processor examples 

The ASIC microprocessor is grown from basic logic gates, the microprocessor, memory block, ROM, RAM, EEPROM, flash memory, and other block are built with ASIC.

5. DSP processor

DSP or digital signal processor is a specific microprocessor type used to process the digital signal and it is a processor build-in with MOS integrated circuits.

DSP processor architecture

DSP processor architecture
DSP processor architecture

The basic working of DSP on a device is to measure, filter, and compress real-life analog signals.

The DSP processor had specialized memory architecture to control multiple data instructions on it.

The DSP processor needs a large number of multimedia operations to perform to constantly convert the analog signal to digital.

DSP applications

The DSP microprocessors had multiple applications in audio signal processing, telecommunication, digital image processing, radar systems, speech recognition, mobile phones, and satellite technology.

6. SIMD processor

The SIMD processor is a set of processing units under the supervision of a controlling unit.

Every processor gets the same set of instructions from the control unit but works with different data.

SIMD full form

Single instruction and multiple data stream is the full form of ‘SIMD’ processor

SIMD processor architecture

The SIMD processor is a parallel processing unit that can operate with an instruction set.

The SIMD instruction set will take less CPU instruction will process with multiple elements.

The SIMD instruction is an improved performance of multimedia.

SIMD processor examples

SIMD processors had very specific applications like contrast adjusting a digital image, adjusting the volume of digital audio.

7. Symbolic processor

The symbolic processor had primitive operations such as algorithmic behavior, memory input-output, and communication.

Symbolic processor architecture

Symbolic processor architecture
Symbolic processor architecture

Symbolic processor examples

The symbolic processor had applications in knowledge engineering, text retrieval, and machine intelligence.

8. Bit slice microprocessor

The bit slicing is a technique used to construct processor form modules of the processor of smaller bit width, this will for the purpose to increase word length.

Bit slice processor architecture

Bit slice processor architecture
Bit slice processor architecture

Each of the component modules processors one-bit field or slice

Bit-slice processor had ALU of 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16-bit control lines

Bit slice processor examples

Most modern technologies like quantum computing and many software behaviors are used on ALUs.

9. Transputer processor

The transputer processor is a semiconductor-based processor that had integrated memory and serial communication lines with parallel computing.

Transputer processor full form

Transistor computer is the full form transputer processor.

The aim for designing such a technology is to produce low cost, low-power integrated chip to form a total processor.

10. Graphics processor

The graphic processor unit or GPU is a specific electronic circuit that works in the parallel process including graphics and video rendering.

The GPUs are used to alter memory to accelerate the creation of the image in the frame included for output to display the device.

Graphics processor architecture

Graphics processor architecture
Graphics processor architecture

The highly parallel structure of GPUs makes them more efficient than general-purpose CPUs.

Graphics processor examples

In the modern world, almost all the display based appliances use GPUs in it like, embedded system, mobile phones, personal computers, workstations, and game stations.

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