Advantages and disadvantages of optical fiber

Advantages and disadvantages of optical fibre
Advantages and disadvantages of optical fibre

Optical fiber is the important cable material used in communication, at optical fiber technology, first, the circuit converts an electrical signal into the optical signal or equivalent light wave, and then optical fiber is used as a medium to transfer the optical signal to the other side.

The figure shows the inner structure of the optical fiber cable, it is a cylindrical-shaped dielectric material that has the ability to transfer light signals a long distance by the process called total internal reflection.

Advantages of optical fiber

  • Better bandwidth
  • Longer transmission distance
  • Greater flexibility
  • Stronger security
  • Less expensive
  • They are thinner and lightweight
  • Higher carrying capacity
  • Less signal degradation
  • Long lifespan
  • Faster operation
  • They had better reliability
  • The bandwidth of the optical fiber is above copper cables.
  • Optical fiber creates resistance against electromagnetic interference
  • Easy installation of the cable due to less weight
  • The optical fiber cable had resistance against natural causes.
  • Fastest communication
  • Higher transmission capacity
  • Optical fiber had more durability
  • Electromagnetic compatibility
  • They had the ability to withstand fluctuations in water and temperature.
  • Dielectric benefits
  • Theft proof
  • Less use of electricity in communication
  • Less energy loss
  • The production cost of optical fiber is because they are been made from glass material.
  • We can easily boost the signal as the amplification.
  • Less maintenance
  • We can easily transmit any kind of piece of information such as audio, video and the internet works with this technology.
  • They carry a large number of pieces of information long distances.
  • They carry a large amount of information either in digital or analog form.

Explanation for advantages of optical fiber

Better bandwidth

The optical fiber had higher bandwidth because of the speed with which data can be transmitted and the distance that can travel without attenuation, the maximum bandwidth offered by the optical fiber is 500MHz/Km.

Transmission speed and distance

The transmission speed per distance offered by the fiber optic technology is 100bit/s for 2km.

Thinner and lightweight

The cables of the optical fiber are thinner and lightweight, the size of the cable means the outer diameter so long-distance transmission fiber cables need to be thinner to avoid dispersion and power loss.

Higher capacity  

The optical fiber carries a higher capacity signal which had the capacity of 100 Gb/sec to more than 1000kms.

Booster amplifier

The optical fiber technology is mainly used for long-distance communication purposes, so in that long-distance traveling of signal, we need to implement a series of booster amplifiers between 125kms.

Faster operation

The faster operation is the main feature of optical fiber technology, so modern fiber cables offer a maximum fast of 100gbps.

Electromagnetic interference / dielectric benefits

The optical fiber cable is a material made with glass and it is a dielectric material, construction wishes optical fiber transmit signals using pulses of light in glass threads, so they had the ability to resist electromagnetic interference and radio frequency interference.

Power consumption  

The power consumption of optical fiber technology is very limited when we compare it with copper cables, the copper cable consume around 5W and the optical fiber cable consumes only 1W power.

Disadvantages of optical fiber

  • Low power
  • Fragility and more vulnerable
  • We can’t bend or twist optical fiber cables
  • Optical fiber cables are difficult to merge, so the loss of beam with cable is possible.
  • Special devices are needed for the transmission of optical fiber.
  • The optical fiber cables are made with glass material, so outer protection is needed for their safety.
  • Installation cost is high
  • They can’t carry electrical power
  • They had a delicate structure
  • At higher optical power, fiber has prone to fiber flex, which may cause damage to the cable.
  • They need a very expensive transmitter and receiver equipment.
  • They provide a unidirectional light propagation.
  • The fiber cables are compact and highly vulnerable while fitting.
  • They need expensive optical transistors and receivers.

Explanation for disadvantages of optical fiber

Low power

The optical fiber cables don’t carry any electric current, they just transmit and receive digital binary signals in the form of light, so they have very low power for operation.

Fragile and vulnerable/delicate structure

The optical fiber cable is made from high-grade plastic and glass fiber, the thinner and lighter structure makes them much easy to break or damage. This is the reason why optical fiber cables are called delicate structures.

Optical power or fiber flux damage the optic cable

The optical power of the fiber optic cable depends on the device which generates and passes the light towards the fiber, the fiber flux damage is dependent on the amount of it.

Unidirectional light propagation

Generally, optical fiber cables are limited to the propagation of the light signal in one direction, but modern optic fiber had the ability to send and receive data in both directions.

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