Switch-mode power supply or switch mode power source is the full form of SMPS, from the full form itself we got a good idea about SMPS, which is a special type of power supply network used at electronic devices.

 

The switch-mode power supply is one of the common power supply types used at most advanced circuits, when we compare switch mode power supply with linear mode supply, we can spot big variations between them such as both the power supplies are used to provide regulated DC signal.

 

The linear power supply is used to build with transformer and other heavy components, but SMPS total ignore transformer and heavy component, this will enable many possibilities for SMPS as follow.

 

What is SMPS technology

The SMPS is a power supply unit used to convert AC to DC, the processes SMPS follows for the conversion labeled the name SWITCH MODE power supply.

 

What are parts at switch mode power supply SMPS?

When we compare SMPS with linear mode power supply, switching process is the only difference we can spot at SMPS, the parts of the SMPS start with rectifier and filter section same as normal power supply.

 

But next, we have fast switch components like MOSFET or IGBT and followed by a control unit consist of, PWM oscillator, feedback unit, and output sensor, then a tiny transformer size of an inductor and last rectifier and filter section.

 

How switch mode power supply SMPS works

When we connect unregulated DC into the high-frequency unit, they operated at 15-50 Hz frequency with the help of the control unit and generate a high-frequency signal, then pass over this signal into the tiny step-down transformer.

After the transformer section, we get a low voltage signal, then we pass the signal through the rectifier and filter, we get a stabilized DC output. 

 

Types of SMPS 

  • Buck converter 

It is also known as a step-down voltage converter, buck SMPS is used for charger applications.

  • Boost converter

It is known as a step-up voltage converter, boost SMPS are been used at high power applications.

  • Buck-Boost converter 

It is the combination of buck and boosts SMPS converters, which may utilize both properties such as low voltage and high voltage on a single board. 

 

Merits of SMPS

  • Their circuit boards are lighter than other power supplies
  • SMPS only has a low power consumption 
  • SMPS can be used on tiny devices 
  • SMPS have 75% to 80% efficiency at operation 
  • SMPS is a very reliable power supply system
  • SMPS can easily adapt to any load changes 
  • SMPS circuit components operate with low noise 
  • SMPS can have the ability to change the circuit resistance according to the output voltage 
  • SMPS generates very low heat at operation
  • SMPS are more compatible 
  • SMPS is less expensive than conventional power supplies 
  • SMPS are less sensitive to input voltage variations 

 

Demerits of SMPS

  • The heat dissipation is quite high at SMPS
  • It produces high electromagnetic interference 
  • SMPS have complex circuitry 
  • SMPS also cause harmonic distortion 
  • SMPS have high output ripples
  • SMPS cannot have the option to use frequency-sensitive devices. 

 

Applications of SMPS

  • Used at boards of computer and laptop
  • Inverter systems
  • UPS systems 
  • Mobile phone charger 
  • Laptop charger
  • Space stations 
  • Security systems 
  • Battery power systems
  • Power amplifier application 
  • Class D amplifier power supply
  • Television power supply
  • Used at railway systems 
  • Used at high power and low power machine tools
  • Electrical vehicles 

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