How to convert 12v to 5v
When we look forward to converting 12v into 5v with any possible technique, we need to consider the importance of Ohm’s law in that operation.
V = R * I
I = V/R
R = V/I
These are the equations stating the ohm’s law, so these equations will explain the reduction of voltage into your deserve level.
R = V/I
The equation clear states that the voltage range will be suppressed using a certain sized resistor, which is the resistance shown by the material that is directly proportional to the voltage.
This property must be proved using a resistor to convert 12v to 5v
Convert 12v to 5v using resistor
The circuit shown here only have one resistor connected in series, when the supply passes through it, 12v dc power will be converted into 5v, conversion depends clearly on which value you selected for the resistor.
The load we connected at the output stage should not be variable, any variation acquires on load current will damages the resistor converter circuit.
The voltage value will change accordingly with the load values, we need to implement regulation with it to save the circuit from damages.
The remaining portion of power will be wasted, due to the single element to control the whole process.
These are the reasons why we don’t use a resistor as a converter of voltage, but applications with constant loads, still use this technique, but most of the time voltage divider networks are used, the single resistor is used as voltage converters for LED driving.
Zener diode convert 12v to 5v
We have to use a 5v Zener diode to convert 12v to 5v, the Zener diode is connected in series for the voltage reduction, and we get more stabilized voltage due to the usage of the Zener diode.
But we consider the efficiency of the Zener based circuit at voltage reducing, dissipation of power is higher, remaining power will be wasted in the diode, so efficiency is satisfactory compare to other circuits.
And Zener diode offers average voltage regulation with the change in load, but the voltage regulation process will not survive the circuit from short circuit and that is the main drawback of this circuit.
The Zener diode-based regulator circuit has many applications in rectifier circuits and also at other voltage limiting applications.
5v to 12v converter using transistor
In the context of voltage reduction, transistor-based circuits didn’t use, here we have a combination of the transistor with Zener diode is used to reduce 12v to 5v. When we considering the circuit connection, you can see that the output is taken from the emitter, so this circuit has another name due to this reason called emitter follower.
The property of the emitter follower has high input impedance and also low output impedance, this element is utilized here to reduce voltage.
The transistor-based circuit has much-improved regulation due to the current amplifying effect of the transistor, overall this circuit didn’t have good efficiency due to the need for extra current for the Zener diode.
The applications of this circuit are in current amplification without voltage gain and at impedance matching circuits.
12v to 5v converter circuit using 7805
The 7805 voltage regulator IC is used to convert 12v to 5v is been a common circuit for most of the applications, IC had 3 three terminals, and ICs are built with the properties of op-amp and transistor.
But this regulator component also dissipates more power than power supplied towards the output load.
This circuit is more efficient than resistor-based and Zener-based circuits because extra current produced in the circuit will be taken by components in the circuit.
And also 7805 regulator IC has additional systems to protect the circuit from short circuits and also it protects the power source from any causes.
The 7805 regulator IC is designed to convert voltages ranges to 5V, so they have more applications in electronic circuits.
The amplifier power supply section uses a 7805 IC-based power supply, rectifier circuits.
12v to 5v buck converter
The conversion of voltage from 12v to 5v is done with many circuit arrangements, but in this case buck converter is used to convert 12v to 5v with the high switching property.
Due to high-frequency switching, output has spikes at its signal.
The Buck converter circuits have higher efficiency than any other circuit, due to the usage of storing elements such as inductors and capacitor, for the conversion of voltage into desire level.
The buck converter has the proper voltage regulation system and an almost good output current limiting property.
And buck circuits have good protection systems to survive the whole circuit from a short circuit and protect the 12v source if it is a battery.
This is the reason why we use buck converters in charging circuits and also buck DC/DC converter has enormous applications in all modern circuit arrangements.
These are the multiple options to convert 12v to 5v supply voltage, each one has its pros and cons at its working and circuit arrangement, the most modern circuit for conversion of voltage is buck converters and SMPScircuit, but they also had many limitations due to the high frequency switching property.
In applications like amplifiers and high sensitive circuits don’t use these high switching converters, because the frequency produced in the circuit will affect the operation of the main circuit.
The main limitation all convert circuits and power supplies face will be the fixed voltage and current with a variable load, here you have two options to take constant voltage or constant current, if you choose constant voltage, you need to add some forms of circuits to limit the maximum current for a safe maximum value.